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Journalism Information Literacy Framework


Citizen Journalism:  Journalistic content produced by the general public, or those who are not professional journalists. Content can include witness accounts, analysis, and reporting.

Expert:  Expert refers to the advanced skills, dispositions, and behaviors of a journalism practitioner, student, or professor. A journalist may be an expert at some areas of practice and a novice in other areas. 

Freedom of Information (FOI) Laws:  Legislation pertaining to public access to government records. Journalists often interact with these laws during their reporting. In the United States, core FOI legislation at the federal level includes the 1966 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and many subsequent amendments to FOIA, as well as the 1974 Privacy Act. Most U.S. states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories have similar laws addressing Freedom of Information. General principles tied to FOI laws presume disclosing government information to the public, and at times relate to additional laws or regulations that call for open government meetings. Exemptions to government records access frequently involve concerns for national security, confidential business transactions, and privacy of personal information. Trends toward ease of disclosure versus obstacles to access encountered by a journalist vary across different U.S. state and federal jurisdictions. Access opportunities and barriers have also varied across numerous public policy changes since the passage of the original Freedom of Information Act in 1966.

Novice:  Novice refers to the undeveloped skills, dispositions, and behaviors of a journalism practitioner, student, or professor. A journalist may be an expert at some areas of practice and a novice in other areas. 

Source: A person, publication, or document that provides information for a news story.